Optical Fibre for Telecommunication

In fibre optics field, with respect to communication industry, each day is rapidly changing with a new product or technology introduced. Fiber optics serves as a major phenomenon in the telecommunication infrastructure. It has low attenuation and high bandwidth capabilities that makes it ideal for gigabit transmission. The optical fiber today is used quite numerous. With the explosion of information traffic due to the Internet, electronic commerce, multimedia, voice, data, and video, the need for a transmission medium with the bandwidth capabilities for handling such vast amounts of information is paramount. Fiber optics, with its infinite bandwidth, has proven to be the ultimate solution.

optical-fibre

Benefits:

Optical fiber systems hold many advantages compared to the metallic-based communication systems. These advantages include:

• Signal transmission on long-distance

• Lightweight, Large bandwidth, and small diameter

• Non-conductivity

• Security

• Specially designed for future applications

Fiber optics carrying information from one node to another in the form of light. Fiber optics is not electrical in nature unlike the copper form. A fiber optic system contains a transmitting device which converts an electrical signal into a light signal, an optical fiber cable used to carry the light, and a receiver that accepts the light signal and converts it back into an electrical signal.

Over the past five years, the growth of the fiber optics industry has been explosive. Analysts suspect that it will continue to emerge at a tremendous rate  into the next decade and far beyond. Anyone with a vested interest in telecommunication would be all the wiser to learn more about the tremendous advantages of fiber optic communication. With all this in mind, we are hoping that this will provide a rudimentary understanding of fiber optic communication systems, technology, and applications in today’s information world.

THE WILSON PRO 4000 R

The Wilson Pro 4000 R is the first rack mounted, multi-amplifier cell booster to incorporate four separate signal amplifiers feeding multiple indoor antennas. Wilson 4000 R provides easy access with one line coming in from outside antennas. Having only one line coming in from outside antenna makes it easier, cheaper, and faster to install. Wilson Pro 4000 R  covers areas having just one single signal booster unit, making it a cost effective large warehouse or large building reception solution in its coverage range.

Designed to provide enhanced in-building cellular coverage .The Wilson Pro 4000 R amplifies weak cell signals to provide reliable voice and data coverage–including 4G – to inside spaces where signals may not penetrate.

Like all Wilson Pro cellular signal boosters, the Wilson Pro 4000 R features cell site protections that auto-detect and prevent any cell tower interference. Adjustable up-link and down-link gain controls on each band and easily customize the cell phone booster in specific signal environment.

Wilson Electronics, quality and its industry-leading three-year warranty make the 4000 R a clear choice for the professional technology integrator.

WILSON PRO 4000R

WILSON PRO 4000 R

 

Advantages:

  • Highest Down-link Power
  • Highest Up-link Power
  • Will Not Shut Down To Overpowering
  • Intelligent Control
  • Sophisticated Software

 Features:

  • They cover +/- 100 square feet.
  • It works on XDR Technology – will not overpower and shut down.
  • Comparable to four Pro 70 Plus boosters
  • They have Self- Optimizing design.
  • Available in 50 Ohm.
  • Max output power of +12 dB m per port
  • Single donor input
  • p/ n 460231

 

When a signal booster accessories are difficult to find, then you expand your search

As a commercial device, the WilsonPro 4000R should be registered before use with the wireless provider, including seeking the consent of the provider. In essence, lots of wireless providers across the divide consent without a problem for cell phone signal booster use.
The device has to be operated with the right approved cables and antennas as the manufacturer has specified. This means antennas need to be installed about 8 inches or 20 centimeters from any individual. Note that if a wireless service provider who’s licensed or FCC requests you to stop using the device, you need to comply. E911 location details might not be offered or inaccurate particularly for calls made under the amplification of the device.
Also note that the largest carriers especially in the United States such as Sprint, Verizon, T-Mobile and AT&T plus over 90 extra regional carriers across the divide have consented to the use of any booster out there as far it has met the laid down certification standards, which the 4000R already has. However, since this a commercial grade booster, it has more stringent requirements and requires permission from all carriers within the city.
It is also important to remember to use the right antennas for the 4000-R. Every signal booster is different and the huge numbers of antenna types are there to meet this diversity. There’re new antennas such as the wide-band Indoor Dome or the outdoor wide-band Omni Donor capable of receiving and transmitting signals in a 360 degrees (360°) pattern. These are compatible with frequency ranges of between 698MHz and 2700 MHz, perfect for the WilsonPro 4000R.
Lots of factors determine and affect the signal booster coverage within buildings. These include hardwoods, firewalls, steel, concrete, strength of outside signal and frequency among others. Of course an accurate and professional system design can make it possible to ascertain the coverage of a building. The WilsonPro 4000R is one of the boosters protected from the interference of a problematic cell signal tower. Excessive signals are easily detected and hindered from seeping through. It works with higher signals by about 10 dB in contrast with most boosters out there.
Any user can easily change the gain controls of the downlink and uplink of the 4000R. Accordingly, the signal booster is the best type of signal booster to use in virtually any type of in-house setting. By playing a bit with the controls, it is easy to find the best controls that would work perfectly for your building or indoor space.
Parts and Accessories Included:
Wilson Pro 4000R complete commercial, industrial, and enterprise cell phone signal booster kit includes following.
Rack mounted signal amplifier.
One directional donor antenna (exterior antenna).
Four interior ceiling mount dome antennas.
One two feet Wilson 400 cable.
One seventy five feet Wilson 400 cable.
One sixty feet Wilson 400 cable.
Three 100 feet Wilson 400 cables.
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One lightning surge protector.
Free Pole and hardware to mount exterior Yagi antenna.
Optional Parts and Accessories (not included):
Optional Omni Directional Exterior Antenna: 3G & 4G Omni Wide-band External Antenna.
Yagi (included) is more powerful than Omni (not included, can be purchased separately), but Omni’s attract signals from all directions and from all cellular service carriers. Omni’s also do not have to be pointed to the cell phone tower.
Additional Interior Panel Antenna(s): 3G & 4G In-Building Panel Antenna (50 Ohm).
Additional Interior Dome Antenna(s): 3G & 4G In-Building Dome Antenna (50 Ohm).

Distributed Antenna Systems are some other alternatives to Cell phone booster systems

A. RF Repeaters
Repeaters are used to increase the range of a transmitted signal by re-transmission. For a conducted signal, an amplifier is used. Optical systems don’t amplify but all these devices give the appearance of doing so. A Repeater is needed to secure sufficient isolation between donor and service antenna. When the isolation is lower than actual gain + reserve (typically 5-15 dB) then the Repeater is in loop oscillation. Also cheap models are equipped with automatic gain reduction in case of poor or weak isolation. In case of poor isolation the device works but with low gain, and coverage is poor.
B. RF Antennas
The antenna is a vital part of any Repeater installation. Because the function of a Repeater is to extend the range of communications between mobile and portable stations, the Repeater antenna should be installed in the best possible location to provide the desired coverage.
External directional antenna: Generally the larger the external antenna the better the signal although even a small, correctly oriented external antenna should provide better signal than the internal antenna on any cell phone. These can either be fitted by professionals or will include a signal strength monitor for easy alignment.
Internal rebroadcast antenna: The better systems will generally include an internal monopole antenna (although the type of antenna is far from standardized) for rebroadcasting the signal internally – the advantage of using a monopole antenna is that the signal will be equally distributed in all directions
(subject, of course, to attenuation from obstacles). Because all radio antennas are intrinsically polarized, cell phones perform best when their antennas are oriented parallel to the booster’s antenna – although within reasonable proximity the booster’s signal will be strong enough that the orientation of the cell phone’s antenna will not make a significant difference in usability.

C. RF Passive components
1)Splitters
2) Combiners
3) Couplers
4) Duplexers
5) Terminators
6) Connectors
7) Feeder cables

DAS – A Clustered installation of Antennas!!!

A Distributed Antenna System (DAS) includes the use of several antennas as opposed to one antenna to provide wireless coverage to the same area but with reduced total power and additional reliability. Often at times a DAS uses RF directional couplers and/or wireless amplifiers to split and amplify the wireless signal from the source out to the distributed antennas. In many cases a DAS will use a combination of low loss coaxial cabling as well as fiber optic cabling supporting radio over fiber (RoF) technology to distribute the wireless signals to the antennas. A Distributed Antenna System can be designed for use indoors or outdoors and can be used to provide wireless coverage to hotels, subways, airports, hospitals, businesses, roadway tunnels etc. The wireless services typically provided by a DAS include PCS, cellular, Wi-Fi, police, fire, and emergency services.

A wireless communication network employs a distributed antenna system to provide radio coverage. The wireless communication network comprises a plurality of access points providing service in respective coverage areas. The access point within each coverage area connects to a plurality of antennas that are widely distributed within the coverage area. Radio resources at antennas within the overlapping region of two or more neighboring coverage areas are shared by the access points in the neighboring coverage areas according to a multiple access scheme. The sharing of radio resources within the overlapping region of two or more coverage areas allows the overlapping region to be enlarged, thereby providing more time to complete a handover.
A distributed antenna system (DAS) or a distributed radio system (DRS) generally refers to a radio-access architecture comprising a large number of antennas distributed widely across a large coverage area and connected to a centralized Access Point (AP). The radiation coverage of each antenna typically has a much smaller footprint than that of a base-centrally-located antenna/base station in a conventional cellular system. The DAS architecture has two main advantages.
First, it is possible to achieve high spatial re-use capacity due to the small coverage area of each antenna.
Second, the centralized access point has complete control of all the radio resources used at each antenna and can therefore coordinate the transmission and reception of signals to minimize interference in an increased system capacity.
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A DAS installation consists of a network of separately installed antenna nodes that are connected to a common source through fiber or coaxial cable. Splitting transmitted power among several antenna elements to cover the same area as a single antenna reduces the total power required and increases the reliability of the signal.
Typically, the antennas in a DAS are connected to the AP through optical fibers. The AP may process the received (uplink) signals from multiple devices using appropriate combining techniques, such as maximum ratio combing (MRC) or interference rejection combining (IRC). On the downlink, the AP may transmit to multiple devices using zero forcing or dirty paper-coding to suppress interference if the forward link channel is known. The AP may also use macro diversity techniques to direct radiation to specific mobile devices if the channel is not known.