DAS – A Clustered installation of Antennas!!!

A Distributed Antenna System (DAS) includes the use of several antennas as opposed to one antenna to provide wireless coverage to the same area but with reduced total power and additional reliability. Often at times a DAS uses RF directional couplers and/or wireless amplifiers to split and amplify the wireless signal from the source out to the distributed antennas. In many cases a DAS will use a combination of low loss coaxial cabling as well as fiber optic cabling supporting radio over fiber (RoF) technology to distribute the wireless signals to the antennas. A Distributed Antenna System can be designed for use indoors or outdoors and can be used to provide wireless coverage to hotels, subways, airports, hospitals, businesses, roadway tunnels etc. The wireless services typically provided by a DAS include PCS, cellular, Wi-Fi, police, fire, and emergency services.

A wireless communication network employs a distributed antenna system to provide radio coverage. The wireless communication network comprises a plurality of access points providing service in respective coverage areas. The access point within each coverage area connects to a plurality of antennas that are widely distributed within the coverage area. Radio resources at antennas within the overlapping region of two or more neighboring coverage areas are shared by the access points in the neighboring coverage areas according to a multiple access scheme. The sharing of radio resources within the overlapping region of two or more coverage areas allows the overlapping region to be enlarged, thereby providing more time to complete a handover.
A distributed antenna system (DAS) or a distributed radio system (DRS) generally refers to a radio-access architecture comprising a large number of antennas distributed widely across a large coverage area and connected to a centralized Access Point (AP). The radiation coverage of each antenna typically has a much smaller footprint than that of a base-centrally-located antenna/base station in a conventional cellular system. The DAS architecture has two main advantages.
First, it is possible to achieve high spatial re-use capacity due to the small coverage area of each antenna.
Second, the centralized access point has complete control of all the radio resources used at each antenna and can therefore coordinate the transmission and reception of signals to minimize interference in an increased system capacity.
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A DAS installation consists of a network of separately installed antenna nodes that are connected to a common source through fiber or coaxial cable. Splitting transmitted power among several antenna elements to cover the same area as a single antenna reduces the total power required and increases the reliability of the signal.
Typically, the antennas in a DAS are connected to the AP through optical fibers. The AP may process the received (uplink) signals from multiple devices using appropriate combining techniques, such as maximum ratio combing (MRC) or interference rejection combining (IRC). On the downlink, the AP may transmit to multiple devices using zero forcing or dirty paper-coding to suppress interference if the forward link channel is known. The AP may also use macro diversity techniques to direct radiation to specific mobile devices if the channel is not known.

A run down of all the important components inside modern cell phones

On taking a cell phone apart, one would find a few individual parts, such as, an antenna, a liquid crystal display (LCD), a keyboard, a microphone, a speaker, and a battery. Inside the phone there is a circuit board which is otherwise called the heart of the system.
First you would enter in room analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion chips which translate the outgoing audio signal from analog to digital and the incoming signal from digital back to analog. It can process millions of calculations per second in order to compress and decompress the voice stream. Then you would enter into the second room where the digital signal processor (DSP) is located. Here in this room you would soon discover that the DSP is a highly customized processor designed to perform signal manipulation calculations at high speed. Next, you would enter the third room with the microprocessor.
Signal Processr Photo
The microprocessor handles all the main functions for the keyboard and display, deals with command and control signaling with the base station (cell tower) and also coordinates the rest of the functions on the board. The read only memory (ROM) and Flash memory chips provide storage for the phone’s operating system and customization features, such as the phone directory. The radio frequency (RF) and power section handles power management and recharging, and also deals with the hundreds of FM channel. Finally, the RF amplifiers handle signals traveling to and from the antenna.

An analog signal has a base carrier’s radio frequency signal, which is modified in some way to amplify the strength of the signal or vary the frequency to add information to the signal. An analog signal can be represented as a series signal to a signal carrier known as sine waves because carrier waves are analogous to the fluctuations of the human voice or other sound that is being transmitted.

Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS), the first common cell phone system in the U.S., uses a range of frequencies between 824MHz and 894 MHz for analog cell phones. A Hertz (Hz) is equal to cycles per second, while a MegeHertz (MHz) is equal to one million cycles per second. The frequencies chosen to be used in analog voice channels are 30 kHz wide, because it gives voice quality that is comparable to a wired telephone.

The transmitter and receiver frequencies of each voice channel are separated by 45 MHZ, to keep them from interfering with each other. Each carrier has 395 voice channels and 21 control channels for activities of registration and paging. Each cell only uses about one-seventh of its frequencies. This helps a hexagonal cell and the six cells in the grid to all use the frequencies.

Digital cell phones use the same radio technology in a different way. For instance, digital phones change voice into binary information (1 and 0) and then compresses it where this compression allows ten digital phones to occupy the same frequency space as one analog cell phone.
Speech is sound in motion, but talking produces acoustic pressure. A telephone reproduces sound by electrical means.

However, in wireless technology, a coder inside the mobile telephone converts sound to digital impulses on the transmitting side and on the receiving side it converts these impulses back to analog sounds. A coder or vocoder is a speech analyzer and synthesizer all in one. A vocoder is found in every digital wireless telephone and is part of a larger chip set called a digital signal processor.

In this process, sound gets modeled and transmitted on one end of the coder and on the receiving end, the speech synthesizer part, interprets the signal and produces a close match of the original.

These sounds can vary because of telephone circuit’s resistance, while electrically representing speech with a continuous (analog) electromagnetic wave; however, digital signals remain stable for the length of their travel because digital signals are a mathematical or numerical representation of sound, with each sonic nuance captured as a binary number.

On hearing sounds, your ears are responding to tiny, rapid changes in the pressure of the air. These changes are called sound waves. They can have a single frequency and constant amplitude. Hearing is a complex mixture of waves with different frequencies and amplitudes. Sound waves range from pure sine waves to complex combinations of waves. The normal human ear can perceive sound ranging in frequency from 20 to 20,000 Hz.16
For reference visit: https://www.scribd.com/document/42151262/What-Are-the-Parts-Inside-a-Cell-Phone

A guide to Boost Cell phone Signal on the Boats

While carriers continue to expand their coverage areas by adding more towers on land, water showcases a hassle for providing adequate coverage for the passengers on boats. To deal with this problem specifically, cell phone boosters are designed wherein they take weak signal from land based towers, amplify it and broadcast it to the passengers on the boat. For a better and faster reception while docked or out on the water, the best option for the passengers would be a marine cell phone signal booster. A marine signal booster works by using an external antenna mounted on the boat which receives a cell signal from the closest tower, that is then passed to an amplifier, and then broadcast the boosted signal to the cabin via an inside antenna. The system also works in reverse when a call is being placed from a phone on the boat.

The three major prominent marine signal booster kits being the SureCall Flex2Go Marine Kit, that boosts 2G and 3G for most major carriers, the Wilson Mobile 4G Marine Kit, which boosts 2G, 3G and 4G LTE for most major carriers, and the Cradle booster, which is meant for only one phone at a time. The Wilson Mobile 4G Marine Kit boosts voice calls, 3G data and the new 4G LTE networks for the major carriers in North America to the inside cabin of the boat or marine vehicle. It has the strongest mobile amplifier allowed by the FCC, but if there is a very weak outside signal, the coverage area may extend only a few feet from the inside antenna.
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The Sleek 4G cradle booster will boost the 2G, 3G and 4G LTE signals of all major carriers for one individual device at a time. The device should generally sit in the cradle at all times to receive boosted signal, hence requiring speakerphone or a Bluetooth headset for voice calls. The SureCall Flex2Go Marine Kit normally boosts voice calls and 3G data to the inside cabin of the boat or marine vehicle. It is believed to have the strongest mobile amplifier allowed by the FCC. The coverage area extends only a few feet from the inside antenna if there is a weak external signal.

Important point to be noted is that a marine signal is solely meant for its use within the boat living area and not the deck. If a booster is being used on the deck, then the signal from the internal antenna can be transmitted back to the external antenna, causing oscillation or feedback, which will immediately shut down the system. A marine signal booster provides greater convenience for voice calls and data usage, as well as peace of mind in case of emergency situations.

Cell Site Leases Exposed

The along crests of the wave while moves along would be the repeating occurrences. The woodland look at an occasional rabbit or land tortoise, from kitchen area window, was now a cellular tower. When we are young, especially, we need the guidance of our mentors, including educators, family, friends, society and media, any of which can lead us well or not. If we are taught that the most important thing is to spend 15 hours a day studying, we may believe it. If we are taught that education doesn’t matter because the salary per hour of slinging crack depends upon how much time we spend out of school, we still have a good chance of realizing that this is a bad lesson. If we are given a creative array of lessons that will affect how we value education, we have a better shot at building a foundation and understanding the positive nature of education for ourselves than if we are taught rote, unrelated facts.

While AT&T would lease the land from MLFD for about $1,500 per month, the Commissioners did not see this as an incentive for pushing the project forward.

With very little effort on your part you can easily get what you want by simply explaining to a professional what you are wanting. You can request single car, double car, enclosed or open. You can tell the professional the type of weather you generally have, especially winter and they can design the carport in a way that will withstand any snowstorm or high wind.

To get to Cedar Falls, follow I-385 toward Columbia and take Exit 23 (Hwy 418 in Fountain Inn). Turn right and go 6.5 miles to Fork Shoals Road. There is a flashing yellow light and cellular tower at this left turn. In 1.7 miles, you’ll dead end into McKelvey Road. Right on McKelvey for just 0.3 miles then left onto Cedar Falls Road at the Cedar Falls Baptist Church. In 0.8 miles, you’ll see the falls on your left. Carefully park on the left side of the road. Just up the hill from the falls is a “drive” through the fence that will allow you to park more safely, but it is rough.

At approximately 10pm on November 29, while the crew of the Shirley slept, a fire broke out on board the ship, quickly spreading to the wharf it was tied to. A night watchman sounded the alarm, alerting the crew on board and others on shore. Unfortunately the fire was extremely aggressive, spreading to adjacent wharves and warehouse buildings nearby. Luckily all the crew on the Shirley escaped, although some of them were unable to reach the wharf quick enough and had to jump into the Pamunkey River.

But this horrible problem doesn’t stop with these two women. There are 22 members of their families that have a myriad of unexplained horrible health problems. Jasso’s husband has a rare cancer. He spent time with her at the lookout. Garcia’s daughter was at the lookout two hours during her first pregnancy.

After that, it’s into the downtown district, if you will, but still run down horribly. There are many multistoried building buildings here, and plenty of enemies. One thing I enjoyed was that there are times when enemies will run into a fence to the right of a screen, and just start climbing to get to you, but the noise and action is so sudden, it can actually make me jump. Resident Evil 4 lacked action like this. Another thing that comes into effect here is the “Team Commands” with Sheva. You have to throw her across from one floor of a building to another so she can unlock the door, but this isn’t like Ashley, for a group of Majini start attacking here, and you have to help her (hopefully you grabbed the rifle).

Each application of the iPhone is amazing. You simply can’t compare it to other phones on the market, though a lot of people try. The phone itself isn’t bad. Everything is touch-screen, so it takes a little getting used to, but the five modes within the phone feature work flawless. You have your favorite contacts, recent calls, contact list, the key pad to dial numbers, and visual voicemail. It’s a new way to make and receive calls. The phone even gives you as much Caller ID information as possible from numbers not listed in your contacts. A resident can claim one deduction of $25,000 from the home’s taxable value and taxes owed is figured from this amount. Basically the entire waterfront of West Point went up in flames that nighttime.

Family fun uninterrupted by signal troubles

If she initiated a policy of telling you that she needs to operate more, pay attention of which will. Isn’t really the case with satellite because it’s a completely wireless technology. The manufactured goods reviews of this router are optimistic because it consists of good efficiency, good sign range, clean set up and environment friendly customer support. In addition, you may have a huge suspicion that your spouse may be in contact with someone through email or cell phone texts. Although you may not be able to get into his or her accounts or know who your spouse is talking to, a private investigator has the ability to help you figure all this out. There is equipment and services that can be used to find out who is calling your spouse. For example, there may be a number that shows up on your spouse’s phone. A professional service can inform you of who’s calling, where the person is calling from, how frequently he or she calls and more. One may think such tactics are over the top. Yet if you cannot sleep at night because of your suspicions, tactics like these may help give you peace of mind and closure. However not every one is familiar with the law or the intricacies and complexities of legal matters. Such persons can seek the help of professionals well versed with cell tower lease. These professionals are usually known as vertical real estate agents make sure that the land owner does not gets duped in any way. However, these professionals ensure that the contract is fair for both sides.
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Focus on the antenna because it provides signal. On this handy device, you should not expect to view any cables. In short, your new gadget should have a digital turner. Decide if you want to look for handheld televisions or any other transportable model. A handheld TV should allow use of headphones by people who love their privacy while watching a program. Are you looking to buy this new age gadget? If yes, you need to use the Internet, as it can let you explore various possibilities. Free television. Have a telephone list made up and keep it near each phone in your house. If you have some confidential numbers on it, you should keep it in a drawer near the phone, out of sight. This list should include emergency phone numbers, as well as numbers of your neighbors, family and friends. If you do not have time to call anyone, just grab it and your cell phone. Then you can make calls from the hospital and not rely on your memory or looking for a phone book.